Acute Kidney Injury is a condition where the kidneys start to fail in their ability to filter waste products from the body. It can be detected by a fall in the urine volume as well as through blood tests that show rising levels of a substance called creatinine, which is removed by the kidneys when they are working normally.
The problem is that Acute Kidney Injury develops before this rise in the level of creatinine is seen in the blood. Earlier recognition would allow more prompt treatment, preventing or slowing progression. New tests are needed for this reason.
Two other components of the blood, called Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and Cystatin C, are produced in response to inflammation and kidney injury, and are thought to be detectable by blood test far more rapidly than creatinine. Currently there is not enough evidence to show that either test works in patients in the Emergency Department setting, so this study aims to compare them to the tests currently used for diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury.
The study will involve 950 adult patients admitted to the Royal Berkshire Hospital, Wexham Park Hospital, John Radcliffe Hospital or Milton Keynes University Hospital from their Emergency Departments. A small sample of unused blood will be saved from the routine bloods taken on admission to run the new tests.